Top
Download PDF

Statement, Assumption & Conclusion

Reasoning

Statement, Assumption & Conclusion

 Lesson Plan

Objective: 

  • To help students understand statements they encounter in daily life while having conversations, reading newspapers, listening to speeches through analytical reasoning. Students would be able to deduce assumptions and conclusions from a statement. At the end of this unit, participants would be in a sound position enough to analyse the given set of statements and assumptions and deduct a rational and feasible conclusion out of the same.

  • To enable learners to solve problems of any kind related to statement, assumption and conclusion. Participants will be able to practice deduction of an assumption and conclusion from a statement by using critical thinking and logical reasoning skills. To enable students to make decisions in their life logically. 

Total Time: 90 Minutes

Instructor Note: 

  • This unit deals with critical thinking skills. Students should be in a sound position enough to analyse the given set of statements and assumptions and deduct a rational and feasible conclusion out of the same by the end of the session. Trainer is required to deliver this unit under an engaging environment by using practical examples and competitive activities.

  • Display/distribute handout consisting of questions. Foundation section will compromise 5 questions, instruct students that they will be given 10 minutes to discuss among themselves and solve these questions, whichever group solves maximum problems wins maximum points on the points table (as drawn earlier). Award 5 marks for each correct answer given by a group. Move around the class to understand the thought process used by students to solve problems. Once time is up, provide solutions and explanations for each question.

  • Switch to moderate level. This section comprises 5 questions and cumulative time allotted will be 10 minutes. All other instructions remain the same.

  • Switch to HOTS. This section comprises 5 questions and cumulative time allotted will be 10 minutes. All other instructions remain the same.

Opening Protocol:

  • Greet the participants.

  • Take attendance.

  • Form groups of participants with each group comprising of 4 members.(For entire session)

  • Draw points table on board and ask participants to name their group with some fancy names. 

  • Inform the participants that the group which tops the points table will be rewarded at the end of session.

  • Recap the previous session by asking 1-2 participants to share with the class what they learnt and did in the previous session.

3 Minutes

Opening Activity:

  • Alright everyone! Before we begin, Let me ask you, how many of you think that you can solve a case of robbery? Let me see how many of you are having that detective instinct and can use your critical thinking to solve the following case.

  • Here is your case. A couple reported a robbery. The husband told the policeman that jewellery worth Rs.10 lakh was missing from his house. The wife took the policeman to the room and said that she thinks that the burglar presumably entered the house by breaking through the window, pointing to the broken window glasses on the floor and outside the house.

             Policeman’s observation:  

  • The policeman noticed that only a few tiny pieces of the broken window glass were scattered inside the room whereas a large amount of glasses were scattered outside the house. The policeman turned towards the couple and asked if anyone else lived with them. The couple answered that only they resided in the house. The policeman after searching the house, finds a newspaper with few handwritten markings on it and asks the couple, who made these markings? The wife answered that the handwriting was of her husband. The policeman then dialled a number from the newspaper, walked back to the couple, smiled and said that there was no robbery at their house and it was the husband who stole the jewellery. The policeman then provided the evidence and the husband accepted that it was him and surrendered himself.

  • How did the policeman catch the culprit? How did he know looking at the window that it was not burglary instead someone from the house has committed theft? Based on the case study, what possibly do you think policeman would have seen marked in the newspaper? Deduce your theories/assumptions based on above given statements and reach out to conclusion. Your team will be marked points based on your answers.

(Trainer should instruct students to read the case study carefully to deduce theories. Trainer should motivate students to push themselves towards thinking critically on this case with various perspectives.)

  • Let’s now see how the policeman solved the case. When the policeman noticed the window, he saw only few tiny pieces of the broken window glass scattered inside the room whereas a large amount of pieces were scattered outside the house. He thought that if someone breaks the window glass, the glasses will be scattered towards the direction of force applied which means if force was applied from outside the house then large amount of broken pieces of window glass would have been there inside the room, however in this case broken glasses were found outside the house which meant that someone from inside the house broke the window glass. This assumption made the policeman suspect either of the couple, he further searched the house and found a newspaper in which advertisement of a jewellery shop was published with new rates of gold. He noticed markings done on the newspaper which was clarified by the wife that it was of her husband. Policeman now deduced that the husband had stolen jewellery, however given information was not enough to reach out to the conclusion, so he dialled the jewellery shop and inquired whether the husband had come to their shop with jewellery. The jeweller answered the policeman that last evening he had bought jewellery worth Rs.10 lakh from the same man he was enquiring about. Case solved!

  • So, what skills did the policeman use to solve this case?

  • Critical thinking.

  • Drawing assumptions from a given situation.

  • Converting his assumptions to conclusion only after concrete evidence.

  • These skills help a person think in a unique way. We often compliment a person by calling him/her intelligent. What makes them intelligent? Their response, actions, decisions, thought process in a given situation makes them intelligent and one can give effective response, take right actions & decisions, control thought process in a right way only when he/she possesses above captioned skills.

  • So, Now that you understand the importance of these skills in our life, In today’s session we will be learning about these skills, you will get to know how to align your thought process to perceive a given situation in a unique way, how to read/understand and deduce a statement, how to create assumptions from a statement and how to draw conclusions from a given statement and we will be doing this by practicing problems based on statement, assumptions and conclusions.

10 Minutes

Section 1: What is reasoning?

  • Reasoning is defined as a process of critical thinking that evaluates a situation in a logical manner to come to a conclusion.

Examples:

  • An HR person uses reasoning skills to find out the cause of dissent in a team.

  • A team lead uses reasoning skills to allocate and prioritize work in the team.

  • A common man uses his reasoning skills to plan his day.

  • A businessman uses his reasoning skills to close a deal in his favor.

Section 2: What is critical thinking?

  • Critical thinking involves looking at different perspectives of a situation, observing the situation and its effect and then coming up with a solution. Critical thinking is closely related to problem solving and decision making. The reason critical thinking is a skill and not just an automatic thought process is because most people think “uncritically”, making decisions based on personal biases, self-interest or irrational emotions. 

Examples of critical thinking:

  • A financial planner uses his critical thinking skills while assessing the budget and projecting the costs for the next financial year.

  • A manager analyzing a client’s feedback to prepare quality metrics or process training programs uses his critical thinking skills.

  • A business analyst uses his critical thinking to analyze data and make informed decisions regarding a company’s performance.

  • How to think critically? Here are some ways to improve your critical thinking skills:

  • Keep the goal in mind.

  • Know your biases and try to look past them.

  • Ask questions and gather information.

  • Evaluate the facts of the situation and all available data.

  • Collaborate and get feedback from others- especially people with different backgrounds to your own.

  • Generate possible solutions, particularly out of the box ideas.

  • Consider the short and long tern consequences of implementing each solution.

Section 3: What is Statement and assumptions?

  • Statement: Statement is variously understood to mean either a meaningful declarative sentence that is true or false or the assertion that is made by a true or false declarative sentence.

  • Assumption: An assumption is that hidden part of the statement which is assumed/supposed and taken for granted. Something that is not clearly mentioned, but is an integral part of it. For example: Let’s take an example of a four storey building made of glass and steel pillars. Now, the glass, the steel pillars can be clearly seen, but the foundation or base of the building is hidden or not clearly seen. This analogy can be used to explain the question type. The glass, pillars which can be clearly seen are parts of the building. This building is the statement of the question. On the other hand, the foundation is the hidden part, not clearly seen, which is the assumption. So, the assumption is the hidden or the implicit part of the statement without which the statement cannot exist.

Section 4: Examples on statements and assumptions:

  • Statement: Amitabh Bachchan says “Today, I have money, fame, property, bank balance. What do you have?” Shashi Kapoor says, “I have mother.”

Assumption: Mother is above all materialistic pleasures of life. This assumption is valid as without assuming it, Shashi Kapoor wouldn’t have concluded what he said.

  • Statement: “If you trouble me, I will slap you.” –  A mother warns her child.

Assumption: The mother warns her child with the expectation that after warning, the child may stop troubling her. 

  • Statement: “All the sweets available in our shop are made from pure ingredients.” The banner outside a sweet shop.

Assumption-1: “People can spend any amount of money to buy sweets made from pure ingredients”. Now this assumption is invalid because the owner of the sweet shop may have thought about the money factor associated with the sweets, but the assumption cannot be accepted as it is not mentioned in the statement.

             Any assumption can be accepted if it is:

  • Root cause of a statement, or

  • Desired effect of a statement. For the statement discussed above.

Assumption-2: “People want sweets made from pure ingredients”. This assumption is the root cause of the statement. People want sweets made from pure ingredients, that is why banner was put up. Thus, this is a valid statement.

Assumption-3: “The owner of the shop expected that people would get attracted from the banner and his sales would increase”. This is a valid assumption because that is the desired effect of the statement.

  • Statement: The country’s overall development has struggled since independence. Government should make every possible step to eradicate corruption.

Assumption-1: Eradicating corruption is the only solution for country’s overall development.

Assumption-2:  Eradicating corruption is the best solution for country’s overall development.

Assumption-3: Eradicating corruption is the definite solution for country’s overall development.

Assumption-4: Eradicating corruption would probably help in overall development. 

In 1,2,3 the words only, best, definite are extreme words with no proof from statement. Whereas “probably” is acceptable in context of the statement.

Important Notes:

  • Always check whether an assumption is implicit or not, by “keeping yourself in the shoes of the subject”. Think from the perspective of the person saying the line in the statement.

  • Always be careful of the extreme words used in the sentence, such as, most, only, all, best, definitely etc. Such statements are supposed to be read very carefully to pick the right assumption.

Important points to remember:

  • Always remember that assumption is always indefinite and positive.

  • Some words like only, each, any, every, all, Questions indicating words like why, these, what, Answers indicating words like therefore, definitely, but, certainly exist in the assumption and that assumption will always be explicit (false).

  • Some words like some, to large extent, many, much exist in the assumption and that assumption will always be implicit (True).

  • Any assumption that is conveying the message of advertisement, notice and appeal, that assumption will always be implicit (True).

  • Any assumption that is talking about the social welfare (positive), govt. policies that assumption will always be implicit (True).

  • If any assumption is talking about past and future that assumption will always be explicit (False).

  • If any assumption showing the word like suggestion, order, request that will always be implicit (True).

  • Remember that restatement is never implicit.

  • Comparison are always wrong

  • By keeping all above points in mind you can solve questions of assumptions easily.

Section 5: What is statement and conclusion?

  • Conclusion: Dictionary meaning of conclusion is “a proposition concluded or inferred from the premises of an argument.” Conclusions rely on the facts of a situation to make a determination that is not implicitly stated or implied by the information. Essentially, a conclusion is the next logical step in an information series. A statement requires two conditions to serve as a conclusion. First, it must be a logically derived statement from the available information. Second, it must not be stated or inferred from the available information.

  • Process of drawing a conclusion:

  • Collect information

  • Evaluate information

  • Evaluate logical conclusions

  • Draw conclusions (using logic)

  • Getting facts: This step includes asking questions like “who”, “how”, “when”, “what”, “where”.

  • Evaluating facts: This step includes asking questions like “Is the fact relevant or significant? Does it support the conclusion”?

  • Drawing a conclusion: To avoid errors, ask questions like “Is the conclusion valid or consistent with the given information” and “Are there any logical flaws in the conclusion?”

  • Evaluating a conclusion: This step includes asking the question “Is the conclusion drawn is fair and logical?”

Section 6- Examples on statement and conclusion:

  • Statement: The sale of television sets of company X has increased.

Conclusion: 1. The sale of television sets of other companies has decreased 2. The sale of television sets of company X was nil in the past

Explanation: In the given statement, nothing is given about the sale of television sets of other companies. Hence, conclusion 1 is not valid while the second conclusion is not related to the statement. Hence, it is also not a valid conclusion.

  • Statement: If you are a skilful IT engineer, we want to engage you in our organization – An advertisement of company X.

Conclusion: 1. The company X thinks that an engineer is a good worker.

                      2. The company X is in need of engineers.

Explanation: Both the conclusion are valid because the company thinks that an engineer is a good worker and also they are in need of engineers, because it is given in advertisement.

Important points to remember:

  • Consider only the matter which is given in the statement. Do not add anything in the statement from your side.

  • You should avoid the presumption and it should be minded that the conclusion may not be converted into a course of action.

  • Generally the past statement is not valid.

  • If some law or any correction is talked about in the statement then things related to it will be taken as conclusion because the idea of making a law or correction is that people will follow it. But always remember that conclusion should be directly connected to the statement.

  • If in the conclusion words like: definitely, quickly, cent-percent, only one, only forever, all, always, every etc. are linked then those are not considered. But if the conclusion is the direct result of the statement, then it is considered.

  • By keeping all above points in mind you can solve problems based on statement and conclusions easily.

  • Now, all of us are aware about critical thinking, its impact on our social, work and personal life. We have understood how to improve our critical thinking, we have learnt about ways to draw assumptions and conclusions out of a statement. Let’s now do a quick activity to see how many of you are now able to use your logical reasoning to deduce and solve this riddle. Groups will be rewarded points based on their answers.

  • Riddle: Two girls went for a dinner together and both ordered iced tea. The first girl drank five drinks in the time that the second girl took to drink one. All of the drinks were poisoned but the girl who drank one died whereas the girl who drank five survived. How is this possible?

  • Answer: The poison was in the ice. The ice melted in the second girls drink as she was drinking slowly while the first girl drank her tea so fast that the ice couldn’t get melted in her tea.

30 Minutes

Directions for Questions:

In each of the following questions, a statement is given, followed by two conclusions/assumptions.

Give answer:

A) if only conclusion/assumption 1 follows,

B) if only conclusion/assumption 2 follows,

C) if either 1 or 2 follows,

D) if neither 1 or 2 follows,

E) if both 1 or 2 follows.

Section 6: Foundation.

  1. Statement: Modern man influences his destiny by the choice he makes        unlike his past.

Conclusions:

1. Earlier there were fewer options available to man.

2. There was no desire in the past to influence destiny.

  1. Statements: Company X has marketed the product. Go ahead, purchase it if price and quality are your considerations.

Conclusions: 

1. The product must be good in quality.

2. The price of product must be reasonable.

  1. Statement: Nation X faced growing international opposition for its decision to explode eight nuclear weapons, as it tests them. 

Conclusions: 

1. The citizens of the nation favoured the decision.

2. Some powerful countries do not want other nations to                                         become as powerful as they are.

  1. Statement: “We deal in used cars. Contact us at phone number XYZ, at the earliest possible.”- an advertisement.

Assumptions: 

1. Some people want to sell old cars.

2. The advertisement will be read by the needy people.

  1. Statement: The government has decided to hold the employers responsible for deducting tax at source for all its employees.

Assumptions:

1. The employees may still not arrange to deduct tax at source for its employees.

2. The employees may not allow the employers to deduct tax at source.

 

Section 7: Moderate.

  1. Statement: The government has decided to pay compensation to the tune of Rs.1 lakh to the family members of those who are killed in railway accidents.

Assumptions:

1. The government has enough funds to meet the expenses due to compensation.

2. There may be reduction in incidents of railway accidents in near future. 

  1. Statement: Why don’t  you go to the court if the employer does not pay you the provident fund contribution?

Assumptions:

1. Courts can intervene in matters of dispute between employer and employees.

2. It is obligatory for the employer to pay the PF contribution to the employees.

  1. Statement: The Parent Teacher Association (PTA) of a school informed the principal that they will not send their children to the school unless the school authority reduces the fees with immediate effect.

Assumptions: 

1. Majority of the parents may agree with the PTA and not send their wards to the school.

2. The school authority may accede to the demand of the PTA and reduce the fees.

  1. Statement: The percentage of the national income shared by the top 10 percent of households in India is 35.

Conclusions:

1. When an economy grows fast, concentration of wealth in certain pockets of population takes place.

2. The national income is unevenly distributed in India.

  1. Statement: The prime minister emphatically stated that his government will make every possible effort for the upliftment of poor farmers and farmlands.

Conclusions:

1. Except poor farmers and farmlands, all others have got benefits of fruits of development.

2. No serious efforts have been made in the past for upliftment of any section of the society.

Section 8: HOTS- High order thinking skills.

  1. Statement: The serious accident in which a person was run down by a car yesterday, again focused attention on the most unsatisfactory state of roads.

Conclusions:

1. The accident that occurred was fatal.

2. Several accidents have so far taken place because of unsatisfactory state of roads.

  1. Statement: Although we have rating agencies like CRISIL, ICRA, there is demand to have a separate rating agency for IT companies to protect investors.

Conclusions:

1. Assessment of financial worth of IT companies calls for separate set of skills, insight and competencies.

2. Now the investors investing in IT companies will get protection of their investment.

  1. Statement: The best evidence of India’s glorious past is the growing popularity of Ayurvedic medicines in the west.

Conclusions:

1. Ayurvedic medicines are not popular in India.

2. Allopathic medicines are more popular in India.

  1. Statement: Let us appoint Mr. X as the CEO of our company so that the company’s products are also perceived to be genuine.

Assumptions:

1. CEO can change the perception of products.

2. Perception is the same as the actual reality.

  1. Statement: All existing inequalities can be reduced, if not utterly eradicated, by action of governments or by revolutionary change of government.

Assumptions:

1. Inequality is a man-made phenomenon.

2. No person would voluntarily part with what he possesses.

Trainer should explain the above questions from each section to the participants and share tips to help participants enhance their thought process.

10 Minutes

Answers

1. A

2. E

3. D

4. E

5. D

10 minutes

Answers

1. A

2. E

3. E

4. B

5. D

10 minutes

Answers

1. E

2. A

3. D

4. A

5. A

13 minutes

Closing Activity:

  • Thank you everyone! Now, all of you are clear with your concepts of statement, assumption and conclusion. You will be getting materials for practice that you have to solve by yourself at home and bring doubts, if any. You will be provided handouts with concepts discussed which will help you brush up and revive your concepts any time in future.

  • Trainer needs to calculate total points accumulated on points table and reward the winning group. In case of tie between two or more groups, reward each of the winning group.

  • So, after what we have learnt today, from now on we will be evaluating a situation or a statement in a logical manner before coming to a conclusion or before taking any action. We will use our reasoning skills to handle any situation. 

1 Minute

Closing Protocol: 

  • Thank the participants for their time.

  • Announce the next time you will be visiting them.

  • Share the topic of the next session.

  • Share the names of reward winning students with nodal officers and institution heads after the session.

Post-session