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Statement, Assumption & Conclusion

Reasoning

Topic: Statement, Assumption & Conclusion

 Study Material

Concept 1: What is reasoning?

  • Reasoning is defined as a process of critical thinking that evaluates a situation in a logical manner to come to a conclusion.

Examples:

  • An HR uses reasoning skills to find out the cause of dissent in a team.

  • A team lead uses reasoning skills to allocate and prioritize work in the team.

  • A common man uses his reasoning skills to plan his day.

  • A businessman uses his reasoning skills to close a deal in his favor.

Concept 2: What is critical thinking?

  • Critical thinking involves looking at different perspectives of a situation, observing the situation and its effect and then coming up with a solution. Critical thinking is closely related to problem solving and decision making. The reason critical thinking is a skill and not just an automatic thought process is because most people think “uncritically”, making decisions based on personal biases, self-interest or irrational emotions. 

Examples of critical thinking:

  • A financial planner uses his critical thinking skills while assessing the budget and projecting the costs for the next financial year.

  • A manager analyzing client’s feedback to prepare quality metrics or process training program uses his critical thinking skills.

  • A business analyst uses his critical thinking to analyze data and make informed decisions regarding a company’s performance.

  • How to think critically? Here are some ways to improve your critical thinking skills:

  • Keep the goal in mind.

  • Know your biases and try to look past them.

  • Ask questions and gather information.

  • Evaluate the facts of the situation and all available data.

  • Collaborate and get feedback from others- especially people with different

 backgrounds to your own.

  • Generate possible solutions, particularly out of the box ideas.

  • Consider the short and long term consequences of implementing each solution.

Concept 3: What is Statement and assumptions?

  • Statement: Statement is variously understood to mean either a meaningful declarative sentence that is true or false or the assertion that is made by a true or false declarative sentence.

  • Assumption: An assumption is that hidden part of the statement which is assumed/supposed and taken for granted. Something that is not clearly mentioned, but is an integral part of it. For example: Let’s take an example of a four storey building made of glass and steel pillars. Now, the glass, the steel pillars can be clearly seen, but the foundation or base of the building is hidden or not clearly seen. This analogy can be used to explain the question type. The glass, pillars which can be clearly seen are parts of the building. This building is the statement of the question. On the other hand, the foundation is the hidden part, not clearly seen, which is the assumption. So, the assumption is the hidden or the implicit part of the statement without which the statement cannot exist.

Concept 4: Examples on statements and assumptions:

  • Statement: Amitabh Bachchan says “Today, I have money, fame, property, bank balance. What do you have?” Shashi Kapoor says, “I have mother.”

Assumption: Mother is above all materialistic pleasures of life. This assumption is valid as without assuming it, Shashi Kapoor wouldn’t have concluded what he said.

  • Statement: “If you trouble me, I will slap you.” –  A mother warns her child.

Assumption: The mother warns her child with the expectation that after warning, the child may stop troubling her. 

  • Statement: “All the sweets available in our shop are made from pure ingredients.” The banner outside a sweet shop.

Assumption-1: “People can spend any amount of money to buy sweets made from pure ingredients”. Now this assumption is invalid because the owner of the sweet shop may have thought about the money factor associated with the sweets, but the assumption cannot be accepted as it is not mentioned in the statement.

             Any assumption can be accepted if it is:

  • Root cause of a statement, or

  • Desired effect of a statement. For the statement discussed above.

Assumption-2: “People want sweets made from pure ingredients”. This assumption is the root cause of the statement. People want sweets made from pure ingredients, that is why banner was put up. Thus, this is a valid statement.

Assumption-3: “The owner of the shop expected that people would get attracted from the banner and his sales would increase”. This is a valid assumption because that is the desired effect of the statement.

  • Statement: The country’s overall development has struggled since independence. Government should make every possible step to eradicate corruption.

Assumption-1: Eradicating corruption is the only solution for country’s overall development.

Assumption-2:  Eradicating corruption is the best solution for country’s overall development.

Assumption-3: Eradicating corruption is the definite solution for country’s overall development.

Assumption-4: Eradicating corruption would probably help in overall development. 

In 1,2,3 the words only, best, definite are extreme words with no proof from statement. Whereas “probably” is acceptable in context of the statement.

Important Notes:

  • Always check whether an assumption is implicit or not, by “keeping yourself in the shoes of the subject”. Think from the perspective of the person saying the line in the statement.

  • Always be careful of the extreme words used in the sentence, such as, most, only, all, best, definitely etc. Such statements are supposed to be read very carefully to pick the right assumption.

Important points to remember:

  • Always remember that assumption is always indefinite and positive.

  • Some words like only, each, any, every, all, Questions indicating words like why, these, what, Answers indicating words like therefore, definitely, but, certainly exist in the assumption and that assumption will always be explicit (false).

  • Some words like some, to large extent, many, much exist in the assumption and that assumption will always be implicit (True).

  • Any assumption that is conveying the message of advertisement, notice and appeal, that assumption will always be implicit (True).

  • Any assumption that is talking about the social welfare (positive), govt. policies that assumption will always be implicit (True).

  • If any assumption is talking about past and future that assumption will always be explicit (False).

  • If any assumption showing the word like suggestion, order, request that will always be implicit (True).

  • Remember that restatement is never implicit.

  • Comparison are always wrong

  • By keeping all above points in mind you can solve questions of assumptions easily.

Concept 5: What is statement and conclusion?

  • Conclusion: Dictionary meaning of conclusion is “a proposition concluded or inferred from the premises of an argument.” Conclusions rely on the facts of a situation to make a determination that is not implicitly stated or implied by the information. Essentially, a conclusion is the next logical step in an information series. A statement requires two conditions to serve as a conclusion. First, it must be a logically derived statement from the available information. Second, it must not be stated or inferred from the available information.

  • Process of drawing a conclusion:

  • Collect information

  • Evaluate information

  • Evaluate logical conclusions

  • Draw conclusions (using logic)

  • Getting facts: This step includes asking question like “who”, “how”, “when”, “what”, “where”.

  • Evaluating facts: This step includes asking questions like “Is the fact relevant or significant? Does it support the conclusion”?

  • Drawing a conclusion: To avoid error ask questions like “Is the conclusion valid or consistent with the given information” and “Are there any logical flaws in the conclusion?”

  • Evaluating a conclusion: This step includes asking question “Is the conclusion drawn is fair and logical?”

Concept 6- Examples on statement and conclusion:

  • Statement: The sale of television sets of company X has increased.

Conclusion: 1. The sale of television sets of other companies has decreased 2. The sale of television sets of company X was nil in the past

Explanation: In the given statement, nothing is given about the sale of television sets of other companies. Hence, conclusion 1 is not valid while the second conclusion is not related to the statement. Hence, it is also not a valid conclusion.

  • Statement: If you are skilful IT engineer, we want to engage you in our organization – An advertisement of company X.

Conclusion: 1. The company X thinks that an engineer is a good worker.

                      2. The company X is in need of engineers.

Explanation: Both the conclusion are valid because the company thinks that an engineer is a good worker and also they are in need of engineers, because it is given in advertisement.

Important points to remember:

  • Consider only the matter which is given in the statement. Do not add anything in the statement from your side.

  • You should avoid the presumption and it should be minded that the conclusion may not be converted into a course of action.

  • Generally the past statement is not valid.

  • If some law or any correction is talked about in the statement then things related to it will be taken as conclusion because the idea of making a law or correction is that people will follow it. But always remember that conclusion should be directly connected to the statement.

  • If in the conclusion words like: definitely, quickly, cent-percent, only one, only forever, all, always, every etc. are linked then those are not considered. But if the conclusion is the direct result of the statement, then it is considered.

  • By keeping all above points in mind you can solve problems based on statement and conclusions easily.

PROBLEMS ON STATEMENT, ASSUMPTION AND CONCLUSION

FOUNDATION

Directions to solve:

In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

Give answer:

  • (A) If only conclusion I follows

  • (B) If only conclusion II follows

  • (C) If either I or II follows

  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and

  • (E) If both I and II follow.

  •  

1. 

Statements: In a one day cricket match, the total runs made by a team were 200. Out of these 160 runs were made by spinners.

Conclusions:

  1. 80% of the team consists of spinners.

  2. The opening batsmen were spinners.

A.

Only conclusion I follows

B.

Only conclusion II follows

C.

Either I or II follows

D.

Neither I nor II follows

E.

Both I and II follow

2. 

Statements: The old order changed yielding place to new.

Conclusions:

  1. Change is the law of nature.

  2. Discard old ideas because they are old.

A.

Only conclusion I follows

B.

Only conclusion II follows

C.

Either I or II follows

D.

Neither I nor II follows

E.

Both I and II follow

3. 

Statements: Government has spoiled many top ranking financial institutions by appointing bureaucrats as Directors of these institutions.

Conclusions:

  1. Government should appoint Directors of the financial institutes taking into consideration the expertise of the person in the area of finance.

  2. The Director of the financial institute should have expertise commensurate with the financial work carried out by the institute.

A.

Only conclusion I follows

B.

Only conclusion II follows

C.

Either I or II follows

D.

Neither I nor II follows

E.

Both I and II follow

4. 

Statements: Population increase coupled with depleting resources is going to be the scenario of many developing countries in days to come.

Conclusions:

  1. The population of developing countries will not continue to increase in future.

  2. It will be very difficult for the governments of developing countries to provide its people decent quality of life.

A.

Only conclusion I follows

B.

Only conclusion II follows

C.

Either I or II follows

D.

Neither I nor II follows

E.

Both I and II follow

5. 

Statements: Prime age school-going children in urban India have now become avid as well as more regular viewers of television, even in households without a TV. As a result there has been an alarming decline in the extent of readership of newspapers.

Conclusions:

  1. Method of increasing the readership of newspapers should be devised.

  2. A team of experts should be sent to other countries to study the impact of TV on the readership of newspapers.

A.

Only conclusion I follows

B.

Only conclusion II follows

C.

Either I or II follows

D.

Neither I nor II follows

E.

Both I and II follow

MODERATE

Directions to Solve:

 

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Give answer

  • (A) If only assumption I is implicit

  • (B) If only assumption II is implicit

  • (C) If either I or II is implicit

  • (D) If neither I nor II is implicit

  • (E) If both I and II are implicit.

  •  

1. 

Statement: "You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation." – A line in an appointment letter.

Assumptions:

  1. The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer.

  2. Generally an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period.

A.

Only assumption I is implicit

B.

Only assumption II is implicit

C.

Either I or II is implicit

D.

Neither I nor II is implicit

E.

Both I and II are implicit

2. 

Statement: It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 5 or so.

Assumptions:

  1. At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.

  2. The schools do not admit children after six years of age.

A.

Only assumption I is implicit

B.

Only assumption II is implicit

C.

Either I or II is implicit

D.

Neither I nor II is implicit

E.

Both I and II are implicit

 

3. 

Statement: "In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance to our employees." – In charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.

Assumptions:

  1. Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality.

  2. Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.

A.

Only assumption I is implicit

B.

Only assumption II is implicit

C.

Either I or II is implicit

D.

Neither I nor II is implicit

E.

Both I and II are implicit

4. 

Statement: Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.

Assumptions:

  1. There are unemployed youth in India who needs monetary support.

  2. The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

A.

Only assumption I is implicit

B.

Only assumption II is implicit

C.

Either I or II is implicit

D.

Neither I nor II is implicit

E.

Both I and II are implicit

5. 

Statement: The State government has decided to appoint four thousand primary school teachers during the next financial year.

Assumptions:

  1. There are enough schools in the state to accommodate four thousand additional primary school teachers.

  2. The eligible candidates may not be interested to apply as the government may not finally appoint such a large number of primary school teachers.

A.

Only assumption I is implicit

B.

Only assumption II is implicit

C.

Either I or II is implicit

D.

Neither I nor II is implicit

E.

Both I and II are implicit

HOTS- HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS

Directions to Solve:

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Give answer

  • (A) If only assumption I is implicit

  • (B) If only assumption II is implicit

  • (C) If either I or II is implicit

  • (D) If neither I nor II is implicit

  • (E) If both I and II are implicit.

1. 

Statement: If it is easy to become an engineer, I don’t want to be an engineer.

Assumptions:

  1. An individual aspires to be professional.

  2. One desires to achieve a thing which is hard earned.

A.

Only assumption I is implicit

B.

Only assumption II is implicit

C.

Either I or II is implicit

D.

Neither I nor II is implicit

E.

Both I and II are implicit

 

2. 

Statement: The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill stations has been cancelled because it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.

Assumptions:

  1. Railways should give concession only to needy persons.

  2. Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill stations.

A.

Only assumption I is implicit

B.

Only assumption II is implicit

C.

Either I or II is implicit

D.

Neither I nor II is implicit

E.

Both I and II are implicit

3. 

Statement: "The bridge was built at the cost of Rs.128 crores and even civil bus service is not utilizing it, what a pity to see it grossly underutilized." – A citizen’s view on a new flyover linking east and west sides of a suburb.

Assumptions:

  1. The building of such bridges does not serve any public objective.

  2. There has to be some accountability and utility of money spent on public projects.

A.

Only assumption I is implicit

B.

Only assumption II is implicit

C.

Either I or II is implicit

D.

Neither I nor II is implicit

E.

Both I and II are implicit

Directions to Solve

In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

Give answer:

  • (A) If only conclusion I follows

  • (B) If only conclusion II follows

  • (C) If either I or II follows

  • (D) If neither I nor II follows and

  • (E) If both I and II follow.

4. 

Statements: In Japan, the incidence of stomach cancer is very high, while that of bowel cancer is very low. But Japanese immigrate to Hawaii, this is reversed – the rate of bowel cancer increases but the rate of stomach cancer is reduced in the next generation. All this is related to nutrition – the diets of Japanese in Hawaii are different than those in Japan.

Conclusions:

  1. The same diet as in Hawaii should be propagated in Japan also.

  2. Bowel cancer is less severe than stomach cancer.

A.

Only conclusion I follows

B.

Only conclusion II follows

C.

Either I or II follows

D.

Neither I nor II follows

E.

Both I and II follow

5. 

Statements: The Government run company had asked its employees to declare their income and assets but it has been strongly resisted by employees union and no employee is going to declare his income.

Conclusions:

  1. The employees of this company do not seem to have any additional undisclosed income besides their salary.

  2. The employees union wants all senior officers to declare their income first.

A.

Only conclusion I follows

B.

Only conclusion II follows

C.

Either I or II follows

D.

Neither I nor II follows

E.

Both I and II follow

SOLUTIONS

FOUNDATION

1. Answer: Option D

Explanation:

According to the statement, 80% of the total runs were made by spinners. So, I does not follow. Nothing about the opening batsmen is mentioned in the statement. So, II also does not follow.

2. Answer: Option A

Explanation:

Clearly, I directly follows from the given statement. Also, it is mentioned that old ideas are replaced by new ones, as thinking changes with the progressing time. So, II does not follow.

3. Answer: Option E

Explanation:

According to the statement, Government has spoiled financial institutions by appointing bureaucrats as Directors. This means that only those persons should be appointed as Directors who are experts in finance and are acquainted with the financial work of the institute. So, both I and II follow.

4. Answer: Option B

Explanation:

The fact given in I is quite contrary to the given statement. So, I does not follow. II mentions the direct implications of the state discussed in the statement. Thus, II follows.

5. Answer: Option D

Explanation:

The statement concentrates on the increasing viewership of TV. and does not stress either on increasing the readership of newspapers or making studies regarding the same. So, neither I nor II follows.

MODERATE

1. Answer: Option E

Explanation:

The performance of the individual has to be tested over a span of time as the statement mentions. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions that the individual’s worth shall be reviewed (during probation period) before confirmation. So, II is also implicit.

2. Answer: Option A

Explanation:

Since the statement talks of putting the child in school at the age of 5, it means that the child is mentally prepared for the same at this age. So, I is implicit. But nothing about admission after 6 years of age is mentioned in the statement. So, II is not implicit.

 

3. Answer: Option B

Explanation:

Assumption I goes against the statement. So, it is not implicit. The allowance will serve as a reward to the employees and shall provoke them to come on time. So, II is implicit.

 

4. Answer: Option A

Explanation:

I directly follows from the statement and so is implicit. Also, the statement is a suggestion and does not tell about a government policy or its position of funds. So, II is not implicit.

 

5. Answer: Option A

Explanation:

Such decisions as given in the statement are taken only after taking the existing vacancies into consideration. So, I implicit while II isn’t.

HOTS-HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS

1. Answer: Option B

Explanation:

Clearly, nothing is mentioned about the professional nature of the job. So, I is not implicit. The statement hints that one rejects a thing that is easy to achieve. So, II is implicit.

 

2. Answer: Option A

Explanation:

The statement mentions that concessions should not be given to people who can afford to spend holidays in hill stations. This means they should be given only to needy persons. So, I is implicit. But, II does not follow from the statement and is not implicit.

 

3. Answer: Option B

Explanation:

Clearly, the statement expresses grave concern over a newly-built flyover not being utilized by public. This implies that such projects need to be taken up only after working out their utility and that the huge expenditure incurred on building such structures is worthwhile only if they prove useful for the public. Thus, only II is implicit.

 

4. Answer: Option D

Explanation:

The statement neither propagates the diet of any of the countries nor compares the two types of cancer. So, neither I nor II follows.

 

5. Answer: Option D

Explanation:

Nothing about the details of the employees’ income or the cause of their refusal to declare their income and assets, can be deduced from the given statement. So, neither I nor II follows.