Statement, Assumption & Conclusion

Reasoning

Topic: Statement, Assumption & Conclusion

Study Material

PROBLEMS ON STATEMENT, ASSUMPTION AND CONCLUSION

FOUNDATION

Directions to solve:

In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

• (A) If only conclusion I follows

• (B) If only conclusion II follows

• (C) If either I or II follows

• (D) If neither I nor II follows and

• (E) If both I and II follow.

•

1.

Statements: In a one day cricket match, the total runs made by a team were 200. Out of these 160 runs were made by spinners.

Conclusions:

1. 80% of the team consists of spinners.

2. The opening batsmen were spinners.

 A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow

2.

Statements: The old order changed yielding place to new.

Conclusions:

1. Change is the law of nature.

2. Discard old ideas because they are old.

 A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow

3.

Statements: Government has spoiled many top ranking financial institutions by appointing bureaucrats as Directors of these institutions.

Conclusions:

1. Government should appoint Directors of the financial institutes taking into consideration the expertise of the person in the area of finance.

2. The Director of the financial institute should have expertise commensurate with the financial work carried out by the institute.

 A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow

4.

Statements: Population increase coupled with depleting resources is going to be the scenario of many developing countries in days to come.

Conclusions:

1. The population of developing countries will not continue to increase in future.

2. It will be very difficult for the governments of developing countries to provide its people decent quality of life.

 A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow

5.

Statements: Prime age school-going children in urban India have now become avid as well as more regular viewers of television, even in households without a TV. As a result there has been an alarming decline in the extent of readership of newspapers.

Conclusions:

1. Method of increasing the readership of newspapers should be devised.

2. A team of experts should be sent to other countries to study the impact of TV on the readership of newspapers.

 A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow

MODERATE

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

• (A) If only assumption I is implicit

• (B) If only assumption II is implicit

• (C) If either I or II is implicit

• (D) If neither I nor II is implicit

• (E) If both I and II are implicit.

•

1.

Statement: "You are hereby appointed as a programmer with a probation period of one year and your performance will be reviewed at the end of the period for confirmation." – A line in an appointment letter.

Assumptions:

1. The performance of an individual generally is not known at the time of appointment offer.

2. Generally an individual tries to prove his worth in the probation period.

 A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit

2.

Statement: It is desirable to put the child in school at the age of 5 or so.

Assumptions:

1. At that age the child reaches appropriate level of development and is ready to learn.

2. The schools do not admit children after six years of age.

 A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit

3.

Statement: "In order to bring punctuality in our office, we must provide conveyance allowance to our employees." – In charge of a company tells Personnel Manager.

Assumptions:

1. Conveyance allowance will not help in bringing punctuality.

2. Discipline and reward should always go hand in hand.

 A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit

4.

Statement: Unemployment allowance should be given to all unemployed Indian youth above 18 years of age.

Assumptions:

1. There are unemployed youth in India who needs monetary support.

2. The government has sufficient funds to provide allowance to all unemployed youth.

 A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit

5.

Statement: The State government has decided to appoint four thousand primary school teachers during the next financial year.

Assumptions:

1. There are enough schools in the state to accommodate four thousand additional primary school teachers.

2. The eligible candidates may not be interested to apply as the government may not finally appoint such a large number of primary school teachers.

 A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit

HOTS- HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

• (A) If only assumption I is implicit

• (B) If only assumption II is implicit

• (C) If either I or II is implicit

• (D) If neither I nor II is implicit

• (E) If both I and II are implicit.

1.

Statement: If it is easy to become an engineer, I don’t want to be an engineer.

Assumptions:

1. An individual aspires to be professional.

2. One desires to achieve a thing which is hard earned.

 A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit

2.

Statement: The concession in rail fares for the journey to hill stations has been cancelled because it is not needed for people who can spend their holidays there.

Assumptions:

1. Railways should give concession only to needy persons.

2. Railways should not encourage people to spend their holidays at hill stations.

 A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit

3.

Statement: "The bridge was built at the cost of Rs.128 crores and even civil bus service is not utilizing it, what a pity to see it grossly underutilized." – A citizen’s view on a new flyover linking east and west sides of a suburb.

Assumptions:

1. The building of such bridges does not serve any public objective.

2. There has to be some accountability and utility of money spent on public projects.

 A. Only assumption I is implicit B. Only assumption II is implicit C. Either I or II is implicit D. Neither I nor II is implicit E. Both I and II are implicit

Directions to Solve

In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

• (A) If only conclusion I follows

• (B) If only conclusion II follows

• (C) If either I or II follows

• (D) If neither I nor II follows and

• (E) If both I and II follow.

4.

Statements: In Japan, the incidence of stomach cancer is very high, while that of bowel cancer is very low. But Japanese immigrate to Hawaii, this is reversed – the rate of bowel cancer increases but the rate of stomach cancer is reduced in the next generation. All this is related to nutrition – the diets of Japanese in Hawaii are different than those in Japan.

Conclusions:

1. The same diet as in Hawaii should be propagated in Japan also.

2. Bowel cancer is less severe than stomach cancer.

 A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow

5.

Statements: The Government run company had asked its employees to declare their income and assets but it has been strongly resisted by employees union and no employee is going to declare his income.

Conclusions:

1. The employees of this company do not seem to have any additional undisclosed income besides their salary.

2. The employees union wants all senior officers to declare their income first.

 A. Only conclusion I follows B. Only conclusion II follows C. Either I or II follows D. Neither I nor II follows E. Both I and II follow

SOLUTIONS

FOUNDATION

Explanation:

According to the statement, 80% of the total runs were made by spinners. So, I does not follow. Nothing about the opening batsmen is mentioned in the statement. So, II also does not follow.

Explanation:

Clearly, I directly follows from the given statement. Also, it is mentioned that old ideas are replaced by new ones, as thinking changes with the progressing time. So, II does not follow.

Explanation:

According to the statement, Government has spoiled financial institutions by appointing bureaucrats as Directors. This means that only those persons should be appointed as Directors who are experts in finance and are acquainted with the financial work of the institute. So, both I and II follow.

Explanation:

The fact given in I is quite contrary to the given statement. So, I does not follow. II mentions the direct implications of the state discussed in the statement. Thus, II follows.

Explanation:

The statement concentrates on the increasing viewership of TV. and does not stress either on increasing the readership of newspapers or making studies regarding the same. So, neither I nor II follows.

MODERATE

Explanation:

The performance of the individual has to be tested over a span of time as the statement mentions. So, I is implicit. The statement mentions that the individual’s worth shall be reviewed (during probation period) before confirmation. So, II is also implicit.

Explanation:

Since the statement talks of putting the child in school at the age of 5, it means that the child is mentally prepared for the same at this age. So, I is implicit. But nothing about admission after 6 years of age is mentioned in the statement. So, II is not implicit.

Explanation:

Assumption I goes against the statement. So, it is not implicit. The allowance will serve as a reward to the employees and shall provoke them to come on time. So, II is implicit.

Explanation:

I directly follows from the statement and so is implicit. Also, the statement is a suggestion and does not tell about a government policy or its position of funds. So, II is not implicit.

Explanation:

Such decisions as given in the statement are taken only after taking the existing vacancies into consideration. So, I implicit while II isn’t.

HOTS-HIGH ORDER THINKING SKILLS

Explanation:

Clearly, nothing is mentioned about the professional nature of the job. So, I is not implicit. The statement hints that one rejects a thing that is easy to achieve. So, II is implicit.

Explanation:

The statement mentions that concessions should not be given to people who can afford to spend holidays in hill stations. This means they should be given only to needy persons. So, I is implicit. But, II does not follow from the statement and is not implicit.

Explanation:

Clearly, the statement expresses grave concern over a newly-built flyover not being utilized by public. This implies that such projects need to be taken up only after working out their utility and that the huge expenditure incurred on building such structures is worthwhile only if they prove useful for the public. Thus, only II is implicit.

Explanation:

The statement neither propagates the diet of any of the countries nor compares the two types of cancer. So, neither I nor II follows.